May 2, 2022 - Reading time: 2 minutes
The short answer:
Cryptology is a science which is interested by secure communication on an insecure communication channel.
Today, all communications passes over unsecured channels like letters, wired and wireless channels which sending data over. So, anyone able to interrupt or listen the message who is in same channel.
Cryptology is encrypting the messages so if anyone get them, the message owner knows they wont able to read.
Usually, Cryptology is seperated by two necessary parts for cryptology.
Nowadays, there is no difference with Cryptology and Cryptography and people uses two of them for same mean.
Crpytography solves some security problems.
Encryption Encryption is provides security on messages and conversations. There is no need to be text, also secures storaged datas too. Chiphers are used for encryption.
Integrity Integrity is about the purity. When you storing or sending data, integrity can be sure about the data not changed or modified. Integrity provides by using hash functions.
Authentication Authentication is verifies the contacts or data ids. Electronic signature also using for authentication process but sometimes the sent datas are need to be verified for is the received data modifed or message is comming from desired contact and the Public-key cryptography provides it.
Non-repudiation Transaction is non-repudiation. User can't denied transaction because only one user has private key and if uses it at the transaction. The Public-key crpytography provides us electronic signatures which them are private and public keys so we can use them for identification. The crypto-assets like Bitcoin, Ethereum uses it for non-repudiation.
Plain text Plain text is the data which is we want to protect. It can be a file on computer or sent messages.
Encrpyted text Encrypted text is chipher output after feed by plain text.
Cryptosystem/Chipher Plain text to encrpyted text, encrypted text to plain text converter algorithms.
Key Key is a secret information which used by chipher to make it private.
We are expecting secure to message so we need to secure chipher for that. If we used a secure chipher to encryption, expected output is pseuderandom character series.
Plain Text > Chipher Algorithm > Encrypted Text > DeChipher Algorithm > Plain Text